Urological cancer is a group cancer developed in urinary system and male genital system. Kidney cancer, bladder cancer, testis cancer, prostate cancer, penis cancer, adrenal gland cancer and uretary cancers are included into this category. Treatment of each urological cancer depends on the size of cancer and to the extent how much it spreads and general health condition of the patient.
Treatment programs offerred for different gynecological cancer types are given below:
Bladder is a sac with expanding muscles and urine is stored here before being discharged from the body. Bladder cancer is a common cancer type and it develops when the cells start to divide and grow in an uncontrollable way, as in the other cancer types. Bladder cancer has three major types, the most prevalent of which is transitional cell carcinoma (developed in the cells in the inner part of the bladder), squamous (flat) cell carcinoma (it generally develops following infection and irritation) and adenocarcinoma (starts in mucous gland). In the event that many types of bladder cancers are diagnosed earily, it can be treated at a high rate (50%).
In the treatment of bladder cancer, surgical operation is generally used alone or with the other treatments. A list of surgical treatments offerred is given below:
Transuretral resection of bladder lesions (TUR-M): It is the first treatment for the onset stage of the bladder cancer. A cystoscope (an imaging device for examining the bladder) is placed into the uretra for removing the tumors and examining the bladder tissue.
Cystectomy: Removal of the bladder wholly or partially by operation for treating the bladder cancer or treating the recurrent bladder cancer after the first treatment.
Partial cystectomy: Removal of the bladder section where tumor developed and peripheral bladder wall by operation. This process is only be applied if the cancer is not in the entry of the bladder (section where urine enters and exits).
Partial cystectomy containing uretral implantation: The bladder section where cancer develops is removed by operation and ureter is diected to another section of the bladder.
Cystectomy containing sigmoid or ileum by-pass: Removal of the whole bladder by operation. An ileum by-pass or canal (urostomy) is created for the dicharge of the urine by means of stoma (a small path opened in the abdomen surgically for the urine transition). Sigmoid by-pass (also known as Mainz II pouch) consists of a part of rectum and sigmoid colon and it provides the urine to be discharged from the body and the stool to be discharged from the rectum.
Cystectomy containing Pouch Formation and Discharge: Removal of the bladder surgically with the Indiana pouch practice for storing and dischargin the urine. In this process, a pouch is created by stitching the ileum and large intestine fragments surgically. Since the pouch will serve as a bladder, it does not discharge on demand and the patient has to discharge it by means of catheter.
Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Cancer)
Oce the cells in one or two kidneys grow in an uncontrollable way and form tumor, the kidney cancer develops. Kidneys on the both sides of the vertebra, just under the rib cage filter the water and waste materials in the blood and form the urine. Also, kidney regulates the electrolyte balance (minerals forming the electrical impulses in the body such as salt and sodium, potasium, chlorine, calcium and phosphate) and produces the hormone and enzymes (such as erythroprotein and renin) regulating the blood pressure and generating the red blood cells.
If the cancer did not spread to the other parts of the body, the most common treatment type applied for the treatmet of kidney cancer would be Nephrectomy. It is the removal of cancerous cells for eliminating the cancer and stopping the further progress.
The following surgical treatment methods are offered:
It is a rarely seen cancer type and it may develop at any location on the penis, however, it is frequently found in prepuce. It slowly spreads and it may be treated once it is diagnosed early. However, in case of failure to treat, it may spread to lymph nodes and other parts of the body. One of the most common treatment methods for the penis cancer is operation. All of the growth on the penis are not cancerous, but, it may appear and act as cancerous. Sometimes, non-cancerous (benign) abnormal growth may be seen on the penis. The mostly affected sections are prepuce and penis head.
Treatment of the penis cancer depends on the stage and location of the cancer. The following surgical treatment methods are offered:
Prostate is a gland in form of walnut under the urinary bladder and in front of the rectum and is responsible for sperm production. Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer type in males and it causes from the cancerous cell development in the prostate gland. Most prostate cancers progress slowly and spreading to other organs is slow. However, when tumor starts to develop, cells detach and it may spread to lymph nodes, seminal vesicles, bones peripheral the hip and penis area and/or lungs. The most common treatment method for the prostate cancer depending on the stage of the cancer is operation.
Endocrine glands are responsible for carefully producing the hormones controlling the various body functions chemically like reproduction, metabolism and growth, in a balanced way. Among these, we can list pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, ovaries and testis. All hormones are directly secreted to the blood flow and reach to targeted cells or organs. Tumor may develop in any endocrine gland and it may cause underproduction or overproduction of hormones by distorting the normal hormone production and both cases lead to serious disease.
Endocrine cancer is a rarely seen disease and its most prevalent types are ovarians and thyroid cancers. Most endocrine cancers are benign (non-cancerous) and they are easily treated, excluding the ovarian cancer and pancreas cancer.