QBA Meditours

Head and Neck Cancers

About 90% of the head and neck cancer is in the form of squamous cell carcinoma formed in the mucosa layer (squamous cells in the tissue form a thin layer on the skin and in the mucosamembrane belonging to digestive and respiratory system). Head and neck cancers are the invasive cancers in different types and their most common types are given below.

Nasopharyngeal is the region in the upper part of throat, remained behind the nose.
Nasal passage connotes the region remained behind the nose and where air going to the throat passes. Paranasal sinuses express the air space peripheral the nasal passage and in form of four pairs.
The mouth cavity connotes the tongue, mouth base, palate, mouth mucosa and gingiva, oropharynx cnnotes tongue base, tonsils and soft palate.
Larynx is commonly known as gullet, hypopharynx is commonly known as pharynx.

Salivary glands are responsible for the liquid secretion, notably saliva.

Since head and neck cancers are aggressive types and there is the risk of developing the other cancer types for its patients, they can be treated at a high rate if they are diagnosed early.

There are other several cancer types in the same region as the head and neck cancer such as brain tumor and eye cancer, however, they are not classified as a part of the head and neck cancer group.

Treatment

In the cancer treatment applied in Cuba, standard cancer treatment methods containing operation, radiation and chemotherapy are applied together with the immunotherapy. Treatment program depends on the cancer type, the stage of the cancer and general health condition of the patient.

  • Initial assessment and preparation.
  • Pre-application health screening.
  • Cyclophosphamide 200mg
  • Nimotuzumab (CIMAher EGF); 24 double vials for 6 weeks of therapy.
  • Initial phase lasts for six weeks in such a way which will correspond to 24 double vials Cyclophosphamide and saline solution (4 vials x 6 vaccination administrations).
  • The first dose will be administered in the healthcare centers located in Cuba. The subsequent doses may be continued in Cuba or the country of the patient.

Glossectomy healthcare program

Glossectomy is the tongue operations for resecting the whole (total glossectomy), half (hemiglossectomy) or some parts of the tongue (partial glossectomy) for the purpose of treating the malign growth of the tongue.

  • Total glossectomy: resection of the whole tongue
  • Hemiglossectomy: resection of the half of the tongue
  • Partial glossectomy: resection of some parts of the tongue
  • Transmaxillary Glossectomy including the neck dissection: Once the cancer in mouth cavity spreds to the lymph nodes in the neck, it may be required to resect the glands in an operation for controlling the spread of the cancerous tissue. The radical neck dissection which has been applied as from 1906 is a well-designed, important operation as well as being easy and it is generally performed at the same time with the operation performed for dissection of major tumor. The neck dissection operation may be one of the following, depending on the original cancer size and to the extent which it spreads:
  • Partial neck dissection: small amount of lymph nodes is dissected.
  • Modified neck dissection: larger amount of nodes is dissected from the neck; it is likely to dissect some other stuctues such as muscles, nerves and veins.
  • Radical neck dissection: More muscles, veins and nerves are removed along with the majority of lymph nodes.

Larynx Healthcare Programs

The neck dissection operation may be one of the following, depending on the original cancer size and to the extent which it spreads:

  • Partial Laryngectomy
  • Horizontal Sub-total Laryngectomy
  • Total Laryngectomy
  • Total Laryngectomy including Radical neck dissection
  • Total laryngectomy including selective neck drainage operation

Maxilla Healthcare Programs


Maxilla cancer is a rare disease seen most comonly in Asia and Africa, particularly in Japan and South Africa. Since the transmaxillary approach is generally more favorable, less damaging and cosmetically more attractive, it is a preferred treatment method. This approach provides better surgical intervention by providing minimum blood loss and to make biopsy in the tumor. Vascularized valves are placed for providing and protecting the blood circulation.
Transmaxillary approach offered in the maxilla program may be one of the following:

  • Micro-vascularized valved transmaxillary resection
  • Vascularized valved transmaxillary resection
  • Vascularized valved transmaxillary resection and reconstruction

Various Head and Neck Healthcare Programs

The neck dissection operation may be one of the following, depending on the original cancer size and to the extent which it spreads:

  • Dissection of Neck Tumor: Dissection of neck tumors is an operation entailing hospitalization. Local or general anesthesia is applied by the age of the patient and position of neck mass.
  • Parotid Healthcare Programs: Parotids are the biggest and most important glands located in the anterior section of each ear. Parotidectomy is a surgical operation performed for the dissection of parotid due to tumor development. — of tumors is benign. The following parotidecomy operations are performed in Cuba. The selected special surgical method aims to the protection of facial nerves- Sub-total parotidectomy: Less operation is perfomed compared with superficial lobectomy and less of the all facial nerves is isolated.
  • Total parotidectomy: large part of parotid is dissected.
  • Radical Neck Dissection Healthcare Programs
  • Radical Neck Dissection: It is an important but simple and easy operation once the cancer spreads to the lymph nodes in the neck.
  • Radical neck dissection and functional neck dissection: accessory spinal nerve, internal jugular veins and sternocleid mastoid muscle are preserved in the functional neck dissection.
  • Craniofacial resection healthcare programs: Craniofacial resection refers to a group operation containing the middle section of skull and face and is a standard treatment in dissection of the tumos affecting the anterior skull base. This operation is performed with an incision from lateral side of the nose to the forehead or over the head from one ear to anothe; also, once it is performed over the skull, tumors appear better and the chance of dissection with a minimum damage on the brain, veins and other important systems in this region, is higher. The following options are offered in Cuba:
  • Central fossa dissection
  • Central fossa dissection and reconstruction with vascularized valve
  • Anterior fossa dissection
  • Anterior fossa dissection and microvascular valve reconstruction
  • Thyroid Healthcare Programs: Thyroid that is a small gland constituting of two interconnecting lobes is located in the anterior section under the larynx and is responsible for controlling the body functions such as body temperature, heart beat rate and blood pressure. Thyroid cancer develops when some cells change and become cancerous. Generally, thyroid cancer develops slowly and it is the least fatal type among the head and neck cancer and it is the most treatable one among the all cancers. The following operations are offered in Cuba:
  • Hemithyroidectomy: It is a standard surgical operation for dissecting the one lobe of thyroid. The procedure is very reliable and the risk of damage is less.
  • Thyroidectomy with Radical dissection: It is a common surgical operation for dissection of the gland partially or completely. In case of lymph node metastasis, the radical dissection is applied.