QBA Meditours

Gynecological Cancers

These are the cancer types developed in different organs (cervix, uterus, vagina, ovaries, vulva and fallopian types) in the pelvis (between the hip bone and stomach) region, in the female reproductive system. The most prevalent gynecological cancers are endometrial cancer (uterine cancer), cervical cancer and ovarian cancer; ovarian cancer is the most hazardous type; because, unlike the uterus and cervical cancers, such type cannot be detected before spreading to the other organs. Fallopian tube cancer, vulva cancer, vaginal cancer and plasenta cancer (molar pregnancy where tissue grows abnormally instead of becoming fetus) may be listed among the other less prevalent gynecological cancer types.

Treatment programs offered for the different gynecological cancers are given below:

Pelvic Exenteration

Pelvic Exenteration is the removal of all or some of the organs in pelvic cavity and in some cases, of the rectum and anus for the treatment of recurrent gynecological cancers by operation.

Pelvic exenteration operations are given below:

  • Pre-exenteration: Organs including uretra, lower part of ureters, uterus, cervix, vagina and urinary bladder in the pelvic cavity are removed, rectum is not touched. A hole is opened from the lower section of ileum (third sectio of the small intestine) for discharge of urine from the body and it is generally bound to abdmoninal wall. Vaginal reconstruction may be performed during or after the exenteration.
  • Post-exenteration: It is the removal of organs behind the pelvic cavity (vagina, uterus, adnexa, rectum, anus and adjacent lymph nodes) and urinary bladder and uretra are not touched. In this procedure, a colostomy (attachment of the colon to the abdominal wall) stoma is necessary for the discharge of waste from body and collecting it in a small bag.
  • Total exenteration: A part of urinary bladder, rectum, uterus, fallopian tubes, vagina, ureta and levator muscles is removed. Urinary stoma and colostomy stoma are necessary for collection of stool.


Hysterectomy is the removal of the cervix, ovarians, uterus and/or fallopian tube by operation for preventing the cancer from spreading to other organs.

The following hysterectomy programs are offered:

  • Total Hysterectomy: Uterus and cervix are removed. The most frequently applied hysterectomy for the gynecological cancer is this type.
  • Video-assisted Laparoscopic Pelvic Lymphadenectomy containing Vaginal Radical Hysterectomy: Vaginal hysterecomy is the removal of the uterus from vagina by operation if the uterus did not grow too much. Ovarians and fallopian tubes may also be removed. Lymph nodes in pelvis are removed by using a laparoscope (thin light tube) and they are examined whether they contain cancer or not. This method may be used for the early stage cancers in cervix and uterus.
  • Video Laparoscopy including Hysterectomy: Removal of the uterus by operation with a minimum incision. This procedure is performed with a small incision in the abdomen (belly button) and surgeon views the images on TV screen with a small camera placed and performs the operation.
  • Wertheim Meigs: It is the most expensive hysterecomy type notably for the treatment of invasive cervix cancer; also, it may be used for endometrial cancer, upper vagina carcinoma (cancer in mucosa memberane) and/or other cancerous tumors in the cervix region.


In this operation that is also known as ovariectomy or decollment of ovaries, one or both of ovarians is/are removed by operation for the treatment of ovarian cancer or prevention of other diseases such as breast cancer. The operation is generally performed by opening an incision on the abdomen for dissecting the ovary/ovaries from the blood flow and peripheral tissue. Oophorectomy may be performed with or without hysterectomy.

The following oophorectomy procedures are offered:

  • Video Laparoscopy containing Oophorectomy: Removal of one or both of ovarians with several small incisions on the abdomen. Then, a small camera is placed into one of these, surgical instruments are placed into the other. Images taken from the camera are projected to the monitor and direct the surgeon during the operation.
  • UnilateralOophorectomy: An operation performed with a minimum incision for removing the ovaries. This procedure enables to menstruate and to have child.
  • Bilateral oophorectomy: Removal of both ovaries.


Vulvectomy, removal of the vulva wholly or partially by operation.

The following vulvectomy procedures are offered:

  • Partial Vulvectomy: It is easiest and most common vulvectomy type and only vulva’s affected section and some peripheral tissues are removed.
  • Radical vulvectomy: It is the least used vulvectomy type and it contains the removal of vulva, clitoris, lymph nodes and nearby tissue. Uterus, vagina and ovaries are not touched.
  • Ultra radical vulvectomy with lymphadenectomy: Radical vulvectomy with post-exenteration (removal of organs from the back of the pelvic cavity – including rectum, but excluding urinary bladder) or total pelvic exenteration (removal of both urinary bladder and rectum). This method contains the removal of lymph nodes.